Wednesday, March 11, 2020
The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay Essays The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay Essay The Values And Ethics Of The Profession Social Work Essay Essay the service users pick can non ever be guaranteed. Utilitarianism would propose that this is because if service users ever received the services they wanted, the societal worker would non be advancing the greatest good for the greatest figure, alternatively would be taking a more Kantian attack of advancing moral good. These two philosophical attacks cause struggle within themselves. The Mental Capacity Act ( 2005 ) says a individual lacks capacity in relation to a affair if at the stuff clip he is unable to do a determination for himself in relation to the affair because of an damage of, or a perturbation in the operation of, the head or encephalon . ( s2 ) . This leads to challenges and struggles for societal workers. If the service user had capacity, there could be conflict over the manner they spend their budget which could take to the societal worker handling that single without regard. Following the BASW codification of moralss ( 2012 ) , it states that societal workers should esteem the right to self-government. Kant would back up this position as, by the societal worker back uping the person to run into their ain self-defined demands, the societal worker is advancing good actions that will in bend produce good results for the person. The societal worker demands to recognize that the person has human rights and freedom to voice their positions. Burton ( 1996 ) showed that there was a failure to recognize the unequal power dealingss between the societal worker in control of proviso of services and the service user who relies on the services. This therefore would sabotage Beistek s rules of self-government as, although the service user is voicing their sentiment, the societal worker is non listening and this could be seen as endangering the rules of personalisation and the codification of moralss that are imperative. The execution of The Mental Capacity Act needs to be reviewed to guarantee workers are following statute law and moralss. It should non be assumed person lacks capacity because they have a disablement. On the other manus, if the service user did nt hold capacity, it could do struggle between the societal worker and the paid carer and/or unpaid carers. If the service user lacks capacity, how would the societal worker or the carers be able to measure what was best for the person? A societal worker would hold to uphold and promote human self-respect and wellbeing every bit good as authorising the person. ( BASW, 2012 ) . These moralss and values are supported by Beistek s theory. Workers need to handle the service user with regard, be non -judgemental and accept the state of affairs the service user may be in. The societal worker hence would merely be able to move upon their appraisal which should include the carer s positions on what is best for the service user. Utilitarianism, an alternate statement, would reason what s the greatest good for the greatest figure? What would profit the service user more? The societal workers positions or the carer s positions? The results need to gua rantee that the maximal people are happy. The societal worker could make the maximal felicity and cut down struggle by utilizing authorization. The societal worker would esteem the demands and penchants of the service user, via the carers and household members every bit good as recognizing their ain biass to guarantee the correct services are offered. The Community Care Act ( 1990 ) promotes attention in the community and people remaining within their ain place, leting the person to utilize their personal budget and have carers to advance independency. There is grounds to propose for illustration, persons who have fractured a limb, menu better when they recuperate in their ain places. ( Pignolo, Keenan and Hebela, 2011 ) . Adjustment is a major concern for many service users ( Davis and Wainwright, 1996 ) . One facet that could do struggle is the pattern of puting immature people in immature disablement units, belongingss that are specifically designed for people with learning disablements. Although this could be seen as a solution for people to interact and hold support, there is a possible struggle as the person can non take where they want to populate and may populate a distance from family/friends. If placed in a intent built constitution, the persons are classed as being housed by the local authorization and hence do non acquire to take alternate locations ( Oliver, 1996 ) . The quandary for the societal worker is the demand to take the persons positions into history whilst equilibrating their demands and wants, peculiarly if the service user lacks the capacity to do the determination. It is improper for anyone to subscribe a occupancy understanding on behalf of an person who lacks capacity. A capacity appraisal needs to be undertaken to guarantee the service user understands how to keep that occupancy. In order to continue, an application needs to be made to The Court of Protection. This could take to conflict as the societal worker and lodging section demand to continue the jurisprudence, nevertheless many households feel they have the right to subscribe a occupancy for their handicapped household member and happen it hard to accept that this is non the instance. Harmonizing to BASW ( 2012 ) , the societal worker demands to develop professional relationships with the service user and the household, uphold the repute and values of the profession every bit good as recognizing diverseness and handling the person as a whole. Utilitarianism would urge looking at what benefits the whole household, instead than merely the service user. Challenges arise when the service user lacks capacity. Using the useful attack, it could be said that the service user should nt be given a occupancy as it does nt advance the greatest good for the greatest figure. This position is in struggle with BASW codifications of moralss. It could be seen as unethical pattern and lead to farther struggle. Beistek would back up the position of BASW in utilizing the specific value base that service users should be allowed to freely show their feelings, both positive and negative, and the societal worker should listen and do a determination in an accepting and non-judgemental manner. However, Kant would state that although the effect of non acquiring a pick in where the service user lives is a negative result, the purpose of puting them in a place, with other people to socialize is a good moral opinion that is entirely profiting the person. Another possible struggle could be older handicapped persons being forced into attention. The Sutherland Report ( 1999 ) claimed that older handicapped people were being forced into institutional attention excessively early due to the deficiency of alternate attention at place. Sixsmith and Sixsmith ( 2008 ) provided grounds that by 2008 there had been a displacement in attention proviso and that the Personalisation Agenda meant that people were staying in their place for longer and having appropriate services. However there is a farther potency for struggle when suiting people, with disablements, to remain in their places. Persons may desire to turn old at place but is this possible for people with significantly reduced mobility? Many places are unaccessible to wheelchair users and those with important mobility damages ( Burns, 2004 ) . There is a Government strategy whereby handicapped people can use for a handicapped installation grant to hold their places adapted, and certain per sons have to re-pay the Government, therefore the Government is non financing expensive attention bundles. The function of the societal worker would be to negociate, support and authorise the service user to hold their demands met in the most appropriate, coveted manner. Harmonizing to Kant s theory, holding a loan is the moral good as people will be able to stay at place for longer, advancing felicity and community attention. This would be supported by the values of BASW which states societal workers need to handle the service user as a whole and respect their right to self-government. In contrast to Kant s theory, Utilitarianism would see weighing up the effects of taking the service user from their house and into an altered and safe environment. I.e. a attention place could be seen as an easier option for handicapped people to have attention. This position could do struggle because the societal worker is traveling against the wants and desires of the service user. Utilitarianism looks at the best result for society instead than on an single degree. Therefore, by traveling persons out of the house into the attention place may supply maximal felicity for society, although it disregards the person s positions and sentiments. This is a unfavorable judgment of the theoretical account as many service users could potentially non hold their demands met in a mode that is acceptable to them due to the focal point being on the benefit to society. This could be peculiarly true e.g. for people with English as a 2nd linguistic communication or who follow a spiritual religion. However, Beistek would hold with Kant in advancing self-government. A cardinal subject running throughout this essay is respect for the single individual as a ego finding being. Both Kant and Beistek promote this and hence look to be the societal philosophical theoretical accounts best tailored towards societal work values and moralss. There are clear struggles between traditional societal work and the personalisation docket for people with disablements. These struggles have been reduced with the debut of HCPC moralss. If the societal worker systematically uses these theories whilst working with struggle and disputing service users so the BASW moralss will be maintained and the service users will have the best appropriate service available within Fair entree to care standards.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES - Essay Example Cloon Kleen is trying to look for cost effective ways in which it can efficiently market itself and gain competitive advantage. Differentiation has immensely helped the company in retaining its customers due to the uniqueness of their productsÃ¢â¬â¢ scent. Cloon KleenÃ¢â¬â¢s has had high number of loyal customers, which is approximately 80% due to the uniqueness of their products to their customers who are majorly women of age between 25 and 50. The company has also adopted their own line of body care products due to high differentiation strategy they employee in their products. Cloon Keen uses three different perfumes to create fragrances which are of very high quality and do have authentic aroma that do not smell strange. The company uses print media which shows colored picture of their products thus promoting the products. A fashion magazine which adds value to the products by associating it with other fashion designs advertised in the same magazine. The company has adopted br anding and packaging of its kind that is very attractive to their customers. The branding is unique and very beautiful thus attracting many customers especially women who are greatly attracted by colors. The company also believes in verbal interaction with their customers that help them improve on the quality of their products through their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ suggestion. ... How it should Be Positioned Relative to Pertinent Competitors The company should further diversify in manufacturing more products with variety of attractive fragrance combined with beautiful packaging and marketing to gain competitive advantage. Changes Required For a Better Positioning The company should embark on thorough marketing, promotion and slightly lower the prices of their products to gain competitive advantage. The company may as well use application or use strategy by manufacturing different products for different occasions and times such as romantic scented candles for lovebirdsÃ¢â¬â¢ gifts and cool scented products for summer seasons. Another great strategy is connecting the products with the users such as classic scented products for the rich. It is also important to design products that are consumer friendly by having consumer in mind. What Is Lifestyle Brand? A lifestyle brand is a brand that tends to symbolize itself with a particular grouping or society for marke ting purposes. This strategy should not be adopted since it may hinder other potential consumers who are not incorporated in the group shun from buying the products. Electronic Media in Promotion Electronic media such as website blogging and other social media should be used to promote and market both the company and the products due to their ability to reach many people at the shortest time possible. The firm should be able to communicate with its customers freely and persuade them to buy their products, which should be well displayed on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s electronic sites. The will further receive feedback from their customers via the electronic media which they will use in improving
Friday, February 7, 2020
Why didnt the South win the Civil War - Essay Example One answer is that the North won it. The South lost because the North outmanned and outclassed it at almost every point, militarily. Despite the long-held notion that the South had all of the better generals, it really had only one good army commander and that was Lee. The rest were second-raters, at best. The North, on the other hand, had the good fortune of bringing along and nurturing people like Grant, William T. Sherman, Philip Sheridan, George H. Thomas, and others. The South was way outclassed industrially. There was probably never any chance of it winning without European recognition and military aid. And we can now see in retrospect what some, like Jefferson Davis, even saw at the time, which was that there was never any real hope of Europe intervening. It just never was in England or Frances interests to get involved in a North American war that would inevitably have wound up doing great damage, especially to Englands maritime trade. Industrially the South couldnt keep up in output and in manpower. By the end of the war, the South had, more or less, plenty of weaponry still, but it just didnt have enough men to use the guns. It is one of the factors of lost that south was inherently weaker in the various essentials to win a military victory than the North (Holness, 2). The North had a population of more than twenty-two million people to the Souths nine-and-a-half million, of whom three-and-a-half million were slaves. While the slaves could be used to support the war effort through work on the plantations and in industries and as teamsters and pioneers with the army, they were not used as a combat arm in the war to any extent. So if the South were to win, it had to win a short war by striking swiftly--in modem parlance, by an offensive blitzkrieg strategy. But the Confederates had established their military goals as fighting in defense of their homeland. In 1861, when enthusiasm was high in the
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Elderly poverty Essay By 2050, the number of elderly people will be high (aged 65 and above) 20 percent of the population worldwide. Given the pressure on the demand for public services such as pensions, health services and housing facilities. Elderly poverty is both a social and a financial problem. Poverty rates among the elderly tend to be highest among women, above all widows over the age of 75. This is mainly due to pension allowances that have traditionally been associated with employment history. In 2000, it was estimated that more than a third of IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s elderly population was living in poverty. Ireland has been criticized for failing to protect its most vulnerable citizens, the elderly. Despite having a state pension scheme for the vulnerable group, there is still a big gap. Poverty rates among the elderly people have changed over the time and this is likely to project (Thomas, 1995). Among the problems faced by the elderly include, food insecurity and poor nutrition. Food insecurity it is the insufficiency in the quality of food intake due to lack of resources which mainly focuses on inaccessibility and unavailable of resources among the elderly as a result of their impairment and health problems. This study reveals that food insecurity is another risk factor associated with poorer nutritional and health status among older persons. Food insecurity is another problem facing elderly people. It has an effect on health and quality nutritional status. Further, it can also bring physical, emotional and economic burdens to the elderly persons themselves. Hence, understanding the cost of food insecurity is the major phenomena in addressing food related issues in elderly persons and providing information to better their nutrition and health services for an ever-increasing and diverse older population. However, nutritional status and consequences of food insecurity mainly focuses on the younger, the adult, women and children. The consequences include decreased nutritional eating habits, inadequate food supply, impairment and an increase in body weight forgetting about the elderly people at large. Food insecurity among elderly persons requires consideration of various determinants of nutritional and health status significant to a particular age group. Concerning food insecurity among the elderly there is the need for investment in long term self-sufficiency projects, supportive policy systems to address issues about the right to food and participation of government, community and other institutions to ensure food security (Laurence, 1990) Health is another issue facing the elderly living in poverty because of the limited incomes, educational achievements and no health insurance facilities. For instance the case of elderly Hispanic who depend on the assistance from the relatives and supplemental security incomes to cope with their deteriorating health issues. Increasing poverty, the socio-demographic profile of the elderly population is rapidly changing, especially with the weakening of extended family ties and lineage-based support systems. Usually, the extended family has been the main source of livelihood support for the elderly in sub-Saharan Africa, taking care of their parents when they are not economically dynamic. With the increase in poverty and health related issues like HIV/AIDS epidemic on the elderly and on the social background in Africa and the death of young people leaves the elderly people in charge. Elderly persons play a key role not only in providing care for persons with HIV/AIDS but also in caring for AIDS orphans which effects them health wise because they do not have enough energy to run up and down looking for food, income to care for the sick. For illustration, in Kenya the elderly people were the main care-givers for people infected with HIV/AIDS and also take care of the orphans. Elderly people also face the problem of accessibility. Since, most of them live places inaccessible to the basic facilities like the health care, incase they are sick access them is very hard and some of the end up not getting to this services because they are weak. Housing; elderly people is largely increasing as a result of poverty and inadequate affordable housing. By housing I mean access to clean and safe water, toilet facilities and waste collection facilities. Among the households especially headed by the elderly there are a few chances of them affording decent house even though they receive assistance like 37 percent of the elderly in America but this is not enough. (Thomas 1995). Every human being needs a range of basic necessities irrespective of age. While poverty exists everywhere, it is most harsh in developing countries, where more than one person in five lives on less than one dollar per day. Reducing poverty among the vulnerable people is an international goal of development and the many international organizations working towards this initiative. Strategies on how to reduce poverty are, however as many as the causes of poverty. For example the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-poverty plan, for example, depends heavily on reducing poverty though the promotion of economic growth. We also have the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that campaign for the reduction of severe poverty among the vulnerable groups REFERENCE Thomas, A. (1995). Old and homeless: an overview of current practice, Westport: Greenwood publishing group. Laurence, E. (1990). Inner city poverty in the United States, New York: National Academies Press.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Todd Robins couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember the last time he had checked the mail. Surely his mailbox would be overflowing with letters and bills and brochures for colleges. When he got to the end of his driveway, he saw that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t full at all! In fact, it seemed as though the mailbox were empty. He decided to peek inside anyway. When he looked inside, he saw only one thing. A small slip of paper. Todd reached in and took out the mysterious slip. It was folded so that he could see only his name, Todd Robins, at the top. He walked inside and opened up the slip. It informed him that he had won a one day and one night stay in an exclusive mountain cabin up in the Rocky Mountains. Ã¢â¬ËThatÃ¢â¬â¢s strange. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember entering any sweepstakes or anything.Ã¢â¬â¢ Todd thought puzzledly. He decided to just go along with it. A little vacation couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt, right? He was close, too, so getting there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a problem. The slip had the address on the bottom along with a time to get to the cabin. He had to be there in 24 hours in order to get his prize, or the second runner up would get it. When Todd w...
Monday, January 13, 2020
A. The Golden Age of Philippine Films The 1950s were considered a time of Ã¢â¬Å"rebuilding and growthÃ¢â¬ . But remnants from the preceding decade of the 40s remained in the form of war-induced reality. This is seen is Lamberto AvellanaÃ¢â¬â¢s Anak Dalita (The Ruins, 1956), the stark tragedy of post-WWII survival set in Intramuros. The decade saw frenetic activity in the film industry which yielded what might be regarded as the first harvest of distinguished films by Filipinos. Two studios before the war, namely Sampaguita Pictures and LVN, reestablished themselves. Bouncing back quickly, they churned out movie after movie to make up for the drought of films caused by the war. Another studio, Premiere Productions, was earning a reputation for Ã¢â¬Å"the vigor and the freshnessÃ¢â¬ of some of its films. This was the period of the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ when the industry operated under the studio system. Each studio (Sampaguita, LVN, Premiere and Lebran) had its own set of stars, technicians and directors, all lined up for a sequence of movie after movie every year therefore maintaining a monopoly of the industry. The system assured moviegoers a variety of fare for a whole year and allowed stars and directors to improve their skills. Read more: Essay About Philippine Cinema Critics now clarify that the 50s may be considered one Ã¢â¬Å"Golden AgeÃ¢â¬ for the Filipino film not because film content had improved but because cinematic techniques achieved an artistic breakthrough in that decade. This new consciousness was further developed by local and international awards that were established in that decade. Awards were first instituted that decade. First, the Manila Times Publishing Co. set up the Maria Clara Awards. In 1952, the FAMAS (Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences) Awards were handed out. More so, Filipino films started garnering awards in international film festivals. One such honor was bestowed on Manuel CondeÃ¢â¬â¢s immortal movie Genghis Khan (1952) when it was accepted for screening at the Venice Film Festival. Other honors include awards for movies like Gerardo de LeonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ifugao (1954) and Lamberto AvellanaÃ¢â¬â¢s Anak Dalita. This established the Philippines as a major filmmaking center in Asia. These awards also had the effect of finally garnering for Filipino films their share of attention from fellow Filipinos. B. The Decline of Philippine Film If the 1950s were an ubiquitous period for film, the decade that followed was a time of decline. There was Ã¢â¬Å"rampant commercialism and artistic declineÃ¢â¬ as portrayed on the following: In the 1960s, the foreign films that were raking in a lot of income were action pictures sensationalizing violence and soft core sex films hitherto banned from Philippine theater screens, Italian Ã¢â¬Å"spaghettiÃ¢â¬ Westerns, American James Bond-type thrillers, Chinese/Japanese martial arts films and European sex melodramas. ToÃ¢â¬ ¦get an audience to watch their films, (the independent) producers had to take their cue from these imports. The result is a plethora of filmsÃ¢â¬ ¦giving rise to such curiosities as Filipino samurai and kung fu masters, Filipino James Bonds andÃ¢â¬ ¦the bomba queen. The studio systems came under siege from the growing labor movement which resulted in labor-management conflicts. The first studio to close was Lebran followed by Premiere Productions. Next came Sampaguita and LVN. The Ã¢â¬Å"Big FourÃ¢â¬ studios were replaced by new and independent producers who soon made up the rest of the film industry. The decade also saw the emergence of the youth revolt best represented by the Beatles and the rock and roll revolution. They embodied the wanting to rebel against adult institutions and establishments. Certain new film genres were conceived just to cater to this Ã¢â¬Å"revoltÃ¢â¬ . Fan movies such as those of the Ã¢â¬Å"Tita and PanchoÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Nida and NestorÃ¢â¬ romantic pairings of the 50s were the forerunners of a new kind of revolution Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Å"teen love teamÃ¢â¬ revolution. Ã¢â¬Å"Nora Aunor and Vilma Santos, along with Tirso Cruz III and Eddie Mortiz as their respective screen sweethearts, were callow performers during the heyday of fan movies. Young audiences made up of vociferous partisans for Ã¢â¬ËGuy and PipÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËVi and BotÃ¢â¬â¢ were in search of role models who could take the place of elders the youth revolt had taught them to distrustÃ¢â¬ Another kind of youth revolt came in the form of the child star. Roberta (1951) of Sampaguita Pictures was the phenomenal example of the drawing power of movies featuring [these] child stars. In the 60s this seemed to imply rejection of Ã¢â¬Å"adult corruptionÃ¢â¬ as exposed by childhood innocence. The film genres of the time were direct reflections of the Ã¢â¬Å"disaffection with the status quoÃ¢â¬ at the time. Action movies with Pinoy cowboys and secret agents as the movers of the plots depicted a Ã¢â¬Å"society ravaged by criminality and corruptionÃ¢â¬ . Movies being make-believe worlds at times connect that make-believe with the social realities. These movies suggest a search for heroes capable of delivering us from hated bureaucrats, warlords and villains of our society. The action films of the 1960s brought into the industry Ã¢â¬Å" a new savage rhythm that made earlier action films seem polite and stage managed.Ã¢â¬ The pacing of the new action films were fast as the narrative had been pared down to the very minimum of dialogues. And in keeping up with the Hollywood tradition, the action sequences were even more realistic. Another film genre that is perhaps also a embodiment of the revolt of the time is the bomba genre. Probably the most notorious of all, this genre appeared at the close of the decade. Interestingly, it came at a time when social movement became acknowledged beyond the walls of campuses and of Manila. In rallies, demonstrations and other forms of mass action, the national democratic movement presented its analysis of the problems of Philippine society and posited that only a social revolution could bring genuine change. The bomba film was a direct challenge to the conventions and the norms of conduct of status quo, a rejection of authority of institutions in regulating the Ã¢â¬Å"life urgeÃ¢â¬ seen as natural and its free expression Ã¢â¬Å"honestÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"therapeuticÃ¢â¬ Looking beyond the obvious reasons as to the emergence of the bomba film, both as being an exploitative product of a profit-driven industry and as being a Ã¢â¬Å"stimulantÃ¢â¬ , it can be analyzed as actually being a Ã¢â¬Å"subversive genreÃ¢â¬ , playing up to the establishment while rebelling and undermining support for the institutions. Even in the period of decline, genius has a way of showing itself. Several Philippine films that stood out in this particular era were Gerardo de LeonÃ¢â¬â¢s Noli Me Tangere (Touch me Not, 1961) and El Filibusterismo (Subversion, 1962). Two other films by Gerardo de Leon made during this period is worth mentioning Ã¢â¬â Huwag mo Akong Limutin (Never Forget Me , 1960) and Kadenang Putik (Chain of Mud, 1960), both tales of marital infidelity but told with insight and cinematic import. C. Films during Martial Law In the 60s, the youth clamored for change in the status quo. Being in power, Ferdinand Marcos answered the youth by placing the nation under martial rule. In 1972, he sought to contain growing unrest which the youth revolt of the 1960s fueled. Claiming that all he wanted was to Ã¢â¬Å"save the RepublicÃ¢â¬ , Marcos retooled the liberal-democratic political system into an authoritarian government which concentrated power in a dictators hand. To win the population over, mass media was enlisted in the service of the New Society. Film was a key component of a society wracked with contradictions within the ruling class and between the sociopolitical elite and the masses. In terms of comparisons, the Old Society (or the years before Martial Law) became the leading symbol for all things bad and repugnant. The New Society was supposed to represent everything good Ã¢â¬â a new sense of discipline, uprightness and love of country Accordingly, the ideology of the New Society was incorporated into local films. Ã¢â¬ ¦Marcos and his technocrats sought to regulate filmmaking. The first step was to control the content of movies by insisting on some form of censorship. One of the first rules promulgated by the Board of Censors for Motion Pictures (BCMP) stipulated submission of a finished script prior to the start of filming. When the annual film festival was revived, the censors blatantly insisted that the Ã¢â¬Å"ideologyÃ¢â¬ of the New Society be incorporated into the content of the entries. The government tried to control the film industry while keeping it in Ã¢â¬Å"good humorÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â necessary so that the government could continue using film as propagandistic vehicles. So despite the censors, the exploitation of sex and violence onscreen continued to assert itself. Under martial law, action films depicting shoot outs and sadistic fistfights ( which were as violent as ever) usually append to the ending an epilogue claiming that the social realities depicted had been wiped out with the establishment of the New Society. The notorious genre of sex or bomba films that appeared in the preceding decade were now tagged as Ã¢â¬Å"boldÃ¢â¬ films, simply meaning that a lot more care was given to the costumes. Martial Law declared in 1972 clamped down on bomba films as well as political movies critical of the Marcos administration. But the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s taste for sex and nudity had already been whetted. Producers cashed in on the new type of bomba, which showed female stars swimming in their underwear, taking a bath in their camison (chemise), or being chased and raped in a river, sea, or under a waterfall. Such movies were called the wet lookÃ¢â¬ ¦
Saturday, January 4, 2020
In linguistics, back-formation is the process of forming a new word (a neologism) by removing actual or supposed affixes from another word. Put simply, a back-formation is a shortened word (such as edit) created from a longer word (editor). Verb: back-form (which is itself a back-formation). Also calledÃ back-derivation. The term back-formation was coined by Scottish lexicographer James Murray, the primary editor of the Oxford English Dictionary from 1879 until 1915. As Huddleston and Pullum have noted, There is nothing in the forms themselves that enables one to distinguish between affixation and back-formation: its a matter of historical formation of words rather than of their structure (A Students Introduction To English Grammar, 2005). Pronunciation: BAK for-MAY-shun Examples and Observations singular noun pea from the older English plural peasethe verb burgle from the older English noun burglarthe verb diagnose from the older English noun diagnosis He spoke with a certain what-is-it in his voice, and I could see that, if not actually disgruntled, he was far from being gruntled, so I tactfully changed the subject. (P.G. Wodehouse, The Code of the Woosters, 1938) Here I was maybe forty minutes ago, sort of claustrophobed in the gap between the kickass movie world where Lila dumps the guy with the smarmy mustache and the obvious one where it just keeps getting later.(Daniel Handler, Adverbs. Ecco, 2006) Stripping the in- from inchoate is known as back-formation, the same process that has given us words like peeve (from peevish), surveil (from surveillance) and enthuse (from enthusiasm). ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a long linguistic tradition of removing parts of words that look like prefixes and suffixes to come up with roots that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t there to begin with. (Ben Zimmer, Choate. The New York Times, January 3, 2010) Suffix Snipping Alan Prince studied a girl who . . . was delighted by her discovery that eats and cats were really eat -s and cat -s. She used her new suffix snipper to derive mik (mix), upstair, downstair, clo (clothes), len (lens), brefek (from brefeks, her word for breakfast), trappy (trapeze), even Santa Claw. Another child, overhearing his mother say they had booze in the house, asked what a boo was. One seven-year-old said of a sports match, I dont care who theyre going to verse, from expressions like the Red Sox versus the Yankees. (Steven Pinker, Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language. HarperCollins, 1999) In many cases of back-formation a presumed affix is removed which is in fact not truly an affix, as in the following words where the -or, -ar, and -er are not the agentive suffix, but part of the root: orator - -er orate, lecher -er lech, peddler -er peddle, escalator -er escalate, editor -er edit, swindle -er swindle, sculptor -er sculpt, hawker -er hawk. These mistakes are called back-formations. Note that some of them are colloquial or marginal, while others are fully accepted. (Laurel J. Brinton, The Structure of Modern English: A Linguistic Introduction. John Benjamins, 2000) Back-Formation in Middle English [T]he weakening of the flexional endings during the early Middle English period, which made possible the derivation from verbs of a multitude of nouns, and vice-versa, was also as essential to the rise of and development of back-formation. (Esko V. Pennanen, Contributions to the Study of Back-Formation in English, 1966) Back-Formation in Contemporary English Back formation continues to make a few contributions to the language. Television has given televise on the model of revise/revision, and donation has given donate on the model of relate/relation. Babysitter and stage manager have given babysit and stage manage for obvious reasons. More remote was the surprising lase from laser (the latter an acronym for lightwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), recorded from 1966. (W.F. Bolton, A Living Language: The History and Structure of English. Random House, 1982) Filling a Void Backformations are more likely to occur with very strongly entrenched patterns and they have the effect of filling an apparent void. The process has given us common verbs such as afflict (from affliction), enthuse (from enthusiasm), laze (from lazy), liaise from liaison), aggress (from aggression), televise (from television), housekeep (from housekeeper), jell (from jelly), and many more. (Kate Burridge, Gift of the Gob: Morsels of English Language History. HarperCollins Australia, 2011) Usage [B]ack-formations are objectionable when they are merely needless variations of already existing verbs: back-formed verb - ordinary verb*administrate - administer*cohabitate - cohabit*delimitate - delimit*interpretate - interpret*orientate - orient*registrate - register*remediate - remedy*revolute - revolt*solicitate-solicit Many back-formations never gain real legitimacy (e.g.,Ã *elocute, *enthuse), some are aborted early in their existence (e.g., *ebullit, *evolute),Ã and still others are of questionable vigor (e.g., aggress, attrit, effulge, evanesce, frivol). . . . Still, many examples have survived respectably. (Bryan Garner,Ã Garners Modern American Usage, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 2009)